2021-11-26 | 2 min read

Yeast

Yeast is a single-celled fungus that consists of water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and B vitamins. Yeast makes bread expand and gain volume. Yeast also helps bread develop flavors, because flavors are formed during the fermentation process. During fermentation, yeast consumes the part of the flour starch that has been converted to malt sugar in the dough. The starch also produces gas bubbles of carbon dioxide. The gas bubbles cause the dough to rise and increase in volume. When the bread is baking, the yeast dies, but the bread continues to grow because the gas bubbles remain in the dough. For best results and bread texture, the bubbles should be small and evenly distributed throughout the dough. Fresh yeast Fresh yeast is a live mushroom that must be stored in the refrigerator, max 46° F. For bread recipes, fresh yeast is dissolved in lukewarm dough liquid*, approx. 98° F, before remaining ingredients are added. At 122° F or hotter, the yeast will die During cold fermentation, the amount of fresh yeast is reduced, and the dough liquid should be approximately 50° F. The amount of yeast needed for cold fermentation is about half the amount needed for traditional fermentation; the exact amount depends on the fermentation time.   Dry yeast Dry yeast is stored at room temperature and, unlike fresh yeast, it has a long shelf life. For bread recipes, dry yeast is first mixed with flour in the bowl and allowed to stand for ten minutes. Then add finger-warm dough liquid, approx. 98° F, along with other ingredients. During cold fermentation, the amount of yeast is reduced, and the dough liquid should be approximately 50° F. The amount of yeast needed for cold fermentation is about half the amount needed for traditional fermentation; the exact amount depends on the fermentation time.   Yeast for sweet doughs There is a variant of both fresh yeast and dry yeast created for baking sweet breads such as cinnamon buns.  Sweet breads are defined as those with dough of more than 2½ tablespoons of sweetener per 400 ml of flour.   Replacing yeast A packet of fresh yeast (50 g) can be replaced with a bag of dry yeast (14 g). Remember that different yeasts dissolve in different ways.   Temperature Fresh yeast should be stored in the refrigerator, ideally at 32-39° F, but it can handle  temperatures up to 46° F. The best yeast temperature for a dough is 77-82° F, while dough liquid should be at 98° F. At 122° F, the yeast cells die. Yeast should not be frozen, as the yeast cells could die.   Storage Fresh yeast should be stored in the refrigerator; dry yeast at normal room temperature. With the right storage, yeast often lasts much longer than the ”use by” date on the package, but its effect will decrease over time to finally subside completely.       *Dough liquid is the liquid you use when baking, such as water or milk.

Yeast is a single-celled fungus that consists of water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and B vitamins. Yeast makes bread expand and gain volume. Yeast also helps bread develop flavors, because flavors are formed during the fermentation process. During fermentation, yeast consumes the part of the flour starch that has been converted to malt sugar in the dough. The starch also produces gas bubbles of carbon dioxide. The gas bubbles cause the dough to rise and increase in volume. When the bread is baking, the yeast dies, but the bread continues to grow because the gas bubbles remain in the dough. For best results and bread texture, the bubbles should be small and evenly distributed throughout the dough. Fresh yeast Fresh yeast is a live mushroom that must be stored in the refrigerator, max 46° F. For bread recipes, fresh yeast is dissolved in lukewarm dough liquid*, approx. 98° F, before remaining ingredients are added. At 122° F or hotter, the yeast will die During cold fermentation, the amount of fresh yeast is reduced, and the dough liquid should be approximately 50° F. The amount of yeast needed for cold fermentation is about half the amount needed for traditional fermentation; the exact amount depends on the fermentation time.   Dry yeast Dry yeast is stored at room temperature and, unlike fresh yeast, it has a long shelf life. For bread recipes, dry yeast is first mixed with flour in the bowl and allowed to stand for ten minutes. Then add finger-warm dough liquid, approx. 98° F, along with other ingredients. During cold fermentation, the amount of yeast is reduced, and the dough liquid should be approximately 50° F. The amount of yeast needed for cold fermentation is about half the amount needed for traditional fermentation; the exact amount depends on the fermentation time.   Yeast for sweet doughs There is a variant of both fresh yeast and dry yeast created for baking sweet breads such as cinnamon buns.  Sweet breads are defined as those with dough of more than 2½ tablespoons of sweetener per 400 ml of flour.   Replacing yeast A packet of fresh yeast (50 g) can be replaced with a bag of dry yeast (14 g). Remember that different yeasts dissolve in different ways.   Temperature Fresh yeast should be stored in the refrigerator, ideally at 32-39° F, but it can handle  temperatures up to 46° F. The best yeast temperature for a dough is 77-82° F, while dough liquid should be at 98° F. At 122° F, the yeast cells die. Yeast should not be frozen, as the yeast cells could die.   Storage Fresh yeast should be stored in the refrigerator; dry yeast at normal room temperature. With the right storage, yeast often lasts much longer than the ”use by” date on the package, but its effect will decrease over time to finally subside completely.       *Dough liquid is the liquid you use when baking, such as water or milk.

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2021-11-26 | 1 min read

Windowpane Test (Gluten Window)

Gluten Bread recipes requires flour, liquid and a leavening agent. Flour contains, among other things, the protein gluten, which is one of the components that holds dough together and makes it elastic. When dough is kneaded, the gluten forms a network of threads which, together with leavening agents, create small gas bubbles. These gas bubbles increase the volume of the dough and make the bread fluffy.   Gluten threads As soon as flour comes in contact with liquid, the chemical process begins. The protein in the flour reacts with the liquid to form gluten threads. At first the threads are weak and can easily break, but kneading will strengthen the threads and make the dough elastic. Gluten window / Windowpane Test Here is a test that can determine if dough has the right elasticity and kneading is complete. Take a small piece of dough and stretch it into a square with your hands. The dough should stick together and appear mostly transparent, like a window. If the dough cracks, the gluten threads are too weak and more kneading is required. Knead the test piece of dough in your hand for a while and repeat the test. If you get a durable, transparent gluten window, it means that the dough in the bowl needs more kneading. Gluten windows work best with pure wheat dough.  For example, a mixed dough of rye and wheat will look slightly different.  Test this dough after kneading, and if it holds and wants to contract again, it is ready. Overworked dough Be careful not to overwork the dough, as this may cause the gluten threads to fall apart. If you have a nice gluten window, no more kneading is required or recommended.

Gluten Bread recipes requires flour, liquid and a leavening agent. Flour contains, among other things, the protein gluten, which is one of the components that holds dough together and makes it elastic. When dough is kneaded, the gluten forms a network of threads which, together with leavening agents, create small gas bubbles. These gas bubbles increase the volume of the dough and make the bread fluffy.   Gluten threads As soon as flour comes in contact with liquid, the chemical process begins. The protein in the flour reacts with the liquid to form gluten threads. At first the threads are weak and can easily break, but kneading will strengthen the threads and make the dough elastic. Gluten window / Windowpane Test Here is a test that can determine if dough has the right elasticity and kneading is complete. Take a small piece of dough and stretch it into a square with your hands. The dough should stick together and appear mostly transparent, like a window. If the dough cracks, the gluten threads are too weak and more kneading is required. Knead the test piece of dough in your hand for a while and repeat the test. If you get a durable, transparent gluten window, it means that the dough in the bowl needs more kneading. Gluten windows work best with pure wheat dough.  For example, a mixed dough of rye and wheat will look slightly different.  Test this dough after kneading, and if it holds and wants to contract again, it is ready. Overworked dough Be careful not to overwork the dough, as this may cause the gluten threads to fall apart. If you have a nice gluten window, no more kneading is required or recommended.

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2021-11-26 | 3 min read

Kneading

Kneading is essential to create an easy-to-work and elastic dough that expands. The kneading process stretches out the gluten threads to form a strong network.  Gas bubbles, which are formed when dough rises, are encapsulated by the gluten network and will cause the bread to rise. Dough is usually kneaded on two occasions: before the first fermentation, and a lighter kneading after the first fermentation. First kneading Once the dough is mixed in the bowl, knead it thoroughly. This will transform the dough from sticky to smooth and pliable.  Kneaded dough will release from the edges of the bowl. Do the windowpane test to see if the dough is sufficiently kneaded. After kneading, the dough should mature in the bowl during the first fermentation (rest time).   Second kneading After the dough has risen in the bowl, turn it upside down on a floured baking sheet and knead it by hand. Use a minimum amount of flour, just enough to prevent the dough from sticking.  Avoid adding too much flour to the dough, as this could make the bread dry. Shape the bread, and place in the desired shape or on a plate. Now the shaped bread should rise again (bedtime).   During processing If the dough is kneaded too little, it will not rise properly , and the bread will be flat and coarse-pored.   Reprocessing If the dough is kneaded too long, the gluten threads can easily break, resulting in a crumbly bread.   Kneading in Ankarsrum Add dough liquid first, even if you use dry yeast. Stir dry yeast according to the instructions on the package, and be sure to mix the dry yeast with flour before adding it. The dough knife should always be used, regardless of whether you choose the dough hook or the dough roller. The dough knife helps bring dough towards the middle of the bowl where it is processed by the roller or hook. The dough knife has a fixed position, but it can be adjusted manually during kneading.   Kneading with the dough roller Use the dough roller for kneading smaller doughs, bun doughs or doughs with butter.  The dough roller can also be used when you make larger cakes or pie doughs. The arm where you attach the dough roller is movable, and it can be locked in a desirable position based on the dough being kneaded. Add dough liquid first and then yeast, set the Assistant on low speed, and pull the arm towards you a couple of times to make sure the yeast has dissolved properly. Then add the flour together with any seasoning. For example, if you are baking buns, you should add soft butter in small pieces for best results, only after other ingredients have been mixed. Work at low speed, and when you see that the dough starts to move up along the inside of the bowl, lock the dough roller ¾” to 2” (2-5 cm) from the edge. Locking the arm gives the dough space to knead without being pressed out of the bowl. You may need to adjust the roller several times during kneading, and also move the dough knife inwards and outwards to scrape dough from the edge. Set the timer to 8-10 minutes, and let the Assistent knead the dough.  You will notice that after a while the dough, even if it seems sticky, gradually comes together into a smooth dough. Wait to add any salt until the last minutes of kneading. The salt helps preserve already formed gluten threads, but it can inhibit their formation if it is added before kneading.   Kneading with the dough hook The dough hook is designed for kneading large and heavy doughs. Attach the dough knife and the hook, without locking the arm. Add dough liquid first and then yeast, set the Assistant on low speed, and pull the arm towards you a couple of times to make sure that the yeast has dissolved properly. Then add flour and any seasoning. Unlike the dough roller, which mainly hugs the dough, the dough hook extends it. When flour is added, center the dough hook and lock it in that position. You may need to adjust the position of the dough hook during kneading, and also move the dough knife inwards and outwards to scrape the dough from the edge. Wait to add any salt until the end of kneading. The salt helps preserve already formed gluten threads, but it can inhibit their formation if it is added before kneading. If you make a dough with 1½ liters (about 6 cups) or more of dough liquid, you should divide the dough in half and leave it in two separate bowls for fermentation.

Kneading is essential to create an easy-to-work and elastic dough that expands. The kneading process stretches out the gluten threads to form a strong network.  Gas bubbles, which are formed when dough rises, are encapsulated by the gluten network and will cause the bread to rise. Dough is usually kneaded on two occasions: before the first fermentation, and a lighter kneading after the first fermentation. First kneading Once the dough is mixed in the bowl, knead it thoroughly. This will transform the dough from sticky to smooth and pliable.  Kneaded dough will release from the edges of the bowl. Do the windowpane test to see if the dough is sufficiently kneaded. After kneading, the dough should mature in the bowl during the first fermentation (rest time).   Second kneading After the dough has risen in the bowl, turn it upside down on a floured baking sheet and knead it by hand. Use a minimum amount of flour, just enough to prevent the dough from sticking.  Avoid adding too much flour to the dough, as this could make the bread dry. Shape the bread, and place in the desired shape or on a plate. Now the shaped bread should rise again (bedtime).   During processing If the dough is kneaded too little, it will not rise properly , and the bread will be flat and coarse-pored.   Reprocessing If the dough is kneaded too long, the gluten threads can easily break, resulting in a crumbly bread.   Kneading in Ankarsrum Add dough liquid first, even if you use dry yeast. Stir dry yeast according to the instructions on the package, and be sure to mix the dry yeast with flour before adding it. The dough knife should always be used, regardless of whether you choose the dough hook or the dough roller. The dough knife helps bring dough towards the middle of the bowl where it is processed by the roller or hook. The dough knife has a fixed position, but it can be adjusted manually during kneading.   Kneading with the dough roller Use the dough roller for kneading smaller doughs, bun doughs or doughs with butter.  The dough roller can also be used when you make larger cakes or pie doughs. The arm where you attach the dough roller is movable, and it can be locked in a desirable position based on the dough being kneaded. Add dough liquid first and then yeast, set the Assistant on low speed, and pull the arm towards you a couple of times to make sure the yeast has dissolved properly. Then add the flour together with any seasoning. For example, if you are baking buns, you should add soft butter in small pieces for best results, only after other ingredients have been mixed. Work at low speed, and when you see that the dough starts to move up along the inside of the bowl, lock the dough roller ¾” to 2” (2-5 cm) from the edge. Locking the arm gives the dough space to knead without being pressed out of the bowl. You may need to adjust the roller several times during kneading, and also move the dough knife inwards and outwards to scrape dough from the edge. Set the timer to 8-10 minutes, and let the Assistent knead the dough.  You will notice that after a while the dough, even if it seems sticky, gradually comes together into a smooth dough. Wait to add any salt until the last minutes of kneading. The salt helps preserve already formed gluten threads, but it can inhibit their formation if it is added before kneading.   Kneading with the dough hook The dough hook is designed for kneading large and heavy doughs. Attach the dough knife and the hook, without locking the arm. Add dough liquid first and then yeast, set the Assistant on low speed, and pull the arm towards you a couple of times to make sure that the yeast has dissolved properly. Then add flour and any seasoning. Unlike the dough roller, which mainly hugs the dough, the dough hook extends it. When flour is added, center the dough hook and lock it in that position. You may need to adjust the position of the dough hook during kneading, and also move the dough knife inwards and outwards to scrape the dough from the edge. Wait to add any salt until the end of kneading. The salt helps preserve already formed gluten threads, but it can inhibit their formation if it is added before kneading. If you make a dough with 1½ liters (about 6 cups) or more of dough liquid, you should divide the dough in half and leave it in two separate bowls for fermentation.

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2021-11-26 | 2 min read

Hydration

Hydration in bread baking is about the flour's ability to absorb liquid. Depending on the flour's composition of starch and protein, it will have different capacities to absorb liquid. If a dough has too little or too much water, there is a great risk that you will get an undesirable result. Different types of flour require different degrees of hydration, and the best way to learn the optimal hydration of a flour is to bake with it a few times. Test the amount of liquid, and get a feeling for the "right" dough texture. When you test bake, start with the amount of flour rather than the amount of liquid. Also, it is important to add all the flour at the same time so that it all has the same conditions for development. A sifted flour, such as wheat flour, requires less liquid, and thus has a high liquid absorption capacity. A coarse flour needs more liquid and more time to absorb water, and thus has a low liquid absorption capacity. It is not possible to predict the exact amount of hydration that will optimize your particular dough, but a rule of thumb is around 65% for white bread, and around 70% for a coarser one.   Low hydration - low fluid absorption Low hydration flour, such as rye flour, creates a firmer dough that is easier to shape and cut. The dough ferments more slowly, and the bread is more compact. Scalding a coarser flour improves its ability to absorb water. Scalding means that boiling hot water is poured over the flour, mixed in, and allowed to stand. High hydration - high fluid absorption High hydration flour, such as wheat flour, creates a dough that is sticky and more “difficult to work.” Therefore, it will turn out best when it is kneaded for a long time in a machine. The dough ferments faster, and often needs more fermentation. The higher the hydration, the softer the bread, with larger air holes and a thin, crispy exterior.   Calculate hydration To calculate the hydration of a bread, multiply the amount of flour by the desired percent hydration. Here is an example.  If you want to bake a bread with 75% hydration, and you are using 500 g of flour, multiply the amount of flour by 0.75: For 75% hydrogenation:  0.75 times 500 (grams of flour) = 375 (grams of liquid) So you need 375 g of liquid in a recipe calling for 500 g of flour to bake a bread with 75% hydration. If you have an existing bread recipe and want to know its hydration percentage, you can calculate it by dividing the amount of liquid by the amount of flour. This can make it easier to adapt a recipe if, for example, you want to double or halve the amount. For a recipe that calls for 500 g flour and 400 g liquid, calculate the hydrogenation as follows: 400/500 = 0.8 = 80% hydrogenation. Everything that contains water, including eggs and butter, should be included in the amount of liquid when calculating the hydration of a bread. Since all flour should be added from the start, you should begin with the amount of flour, rather than liquid, when determining the hydration. Double hydration Double hydration means that you save some of the liquid and add it at the end of kneading. This gives the bread extra elasticity and usually larger air holes.

Hydration in bread baking is about the flour's ability to absorb liquid. Depending on the flour's composition of starch and protein, it will have different capacities to absorb liquid. If a dough has too little or too much water, there is a great risk that you will get an undesirable result. Different types of flour require different degrees of hydration, and the best way to learn the optimal hydration of a flour is to bake with it a few times. Test the amount of liquid, and get a feeling for the "right" dough texture. When you test bake, start with the amount of flour rather than the amount of liquid. Also, it is important to add all the flour at the same time so that it all has the same conditions for development. A sifted flour, such as wheat flour, requires less liquid, and thus has a high liquid absorption capacity. A coarse flour needs more liquid and more time to absorb water, and thus has a low liquid absorption capacity. It is not possible to predict the exact amount of hydration that will optimize your particular dough, but a rule of thumb is around 65% for white bread, and around 70% for a coarser one.   Low hydration - low fluid absorption Low hydration flour, such as rye flour, creates a firmer dough that is easier to shape and cut. The dough ferments more slowly, and the bread is more compact. Scalding a coarser flour improves its ability to absorb water. Scalding means that boiling hot water is poured over the flour, mixed in, and allowed to stand. High hydration - high fluid absorption High hydration flour, such as wheat flour, creates a dough that is sticky and more “difficult to work.” Therefore, it will turn out best when it is kneaded for a long time in a machine. The dough ferments faster, and often needs more fermentation. The higher the hydration, the softer the bread, with larger air holes and a thin, crispy exterior.   Calculate hydration To calculate the hydration of a bread, multiply the amount of flour by the desired percent hydration. Here is an example.  If you want to bake a bread with 75% hydration, and you are using 500 g of flour, multiply the amount of flour by 0.75: For 75% hydrogenation:  0.75 times 500 (grams of flour) = 375 (grams of liquid) So you need 375 g of liquid in a recipe calling for 500 g of flour to bake a bread with 75% hydration. If you have an existing bread recipe and want to know its hydration percentage, you can calculate it by dividing the amount of liquid by the amount of flour. This can make it easier to adapt a recipe if, for example, you want to double or halve the amount. For a recipe that calls for 500 g flour and 400 g liquid, calculate the hydrogenation as follows: 400/500 = 0.8 = 80% hydrogenation. Everything that contains water, including eggs and butter, should be included in the amount of liquid when calculating the hydration of a bread. Since all flour should be added from the start, you should begin with the amount of flour, rather than liquid, when determining the hydration. Double hydration Double hydration means that you save some of the liquid and add it at the end of kneading. This gives the bread extra elasticity and usually larger air holes.

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2021-11-26 | 3 min read

Flour

There are just two essential ingredients for baking a loaf of bread: flour and water. Using flour and water, you can start and feed a sourdough, then mix with even more water and flour, and then bake a finished bread. It's pretty amazing! Wheat flour consists mainly of starch and gluten. Starch is a carbohydrate, while gluten is composed of proteins. Gluten is found in different amounts in different types of flour. Bakers refer to a flour with a low proportion of gluten as "weak," and one with a high proportion of gluten as "strong.” A weak flour is best for soft cakes, pie crusts and cookies that are airy or crispy. A strong flour is best for pizza dough or other Italian breads, as gluten provides greater elasticity. Wheat flour is an example of a weak flour, while durum wheat is a strong.   Quick chemistry lesson: When you mix flour and water, the starch and protein in the flour absorbs the liquid and begins to swell. This creates a dough that consists of an adhesive (starch) and a flexible building material (gluten). When the dough is heated, these building materials solidify, so the ”glue” dries and can no longer absorb liquid. Now it becomes a loaf of bread.   Types of Flour Wheat flour, also called kernel wheat flour, is the most common type of flour. The wheat grain is finely ground and sieved, so only the core of the wheat grain is used in baking. Wheat flour is the flour that is suitable for most uses, such as soft cakes, cookies and buns. Spelled flour, also called spelt flour, is similar to wheat flour but has a much higher protein content. It is a finely ground and sifted flour of an ancient wheat variety, with saturating properties. This type of flour is the easiest to use, and it can usually be substituted for wheat flour in recipes. Note that the amount may need to be adjusted, because spelled flour can absorb more liquid. Spelled and wheat flour are also available as whole grain varieties. Durum wheat flour is a hard wheat with extra strong protein.  It has a yellowish color and offers a full-bodied taste. Durum is excellent for pasta or as a blending flour for pizza or other Italian bread. Graham flour is a coarse-ground wholemeal flour of wheat, rich in fiber, minerals and iron. Graham flour is best suited for coarser breads. It mixes well with other flours such as wheat flour, resulting in a bread that does not become too compact. Rye flour is a coarse-ground wholemeal flour of rye, rich in fiber, minerals and iron. Rye flour is well suited for scalding before baking. Scalding means pouring boiling hot water over the flour and letting it stand for a few hours. Meanwhile, the flour absorbs extra water, which results in a softer bread. Rye flour should also be mixed with another flour, which as wheat flour, to avoid breads that are too compact.  Rye flour is also available as finely ground. Rye sieve is a mixture of finely ground sifted wheat flour and finely ground rye flour. It consists of a larger amount of wheat and a smaller amount of rye, and it provides softer and tasty bread. Barley flour is a finely ground flour of peeled barley. It is high in fiber and suitable for slightly coarser breads and crispbread. Wholemeal flour. The difference between sifted and wholemeal flour is how much of the grain is used. The whole grain variant uses the whole grain, including seed and peel, while the sifted variety only consists of the core. Whole grain flour contains a larger amount of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Storage Flour should be stored dry and not hotter than room temperature. If the flour has been heated, the fat in the flour turns rancid and has an unpleasant aftertaste. When flour is stored properly, it normally lasts longer than the date stamp.   Weights and Measures Because flour is packed differently, it should be measured by weight instead of volume. If you do not have a scale and use a measuring cup, make sure the flour is fluffy. Pour it into a bowl before scooping it up, and do not knock the flour into the measuring cup to avoid the risk of adding too much flour. Change flour type Different types of flour have different properties, so they cannot always be substituted. Both taste and texture are affected. Wholemeal flour can often be exchanged for the corresponding amount of other wholemeal flour, for example 50 g graham flour for 50 g rye flour. Sifted spelled flour and sifted wheat flour can usually be substituted for each other. Keep in mind, however, that spelled flour has a little more flavor, which may not work for all pastries. The easiest way is to try replacing some of the wheat flour with a flour with richer fiber, and then test the result.

There are just two essential ingredients for baking a loaf of bread: flour and water. Using flour and water, you can start and feed a sourdough, then mix with even more water and flour, and then bake a finished bread. It's pretty amazing! Wheat flour consists mainly of starch and gluten. Starch is a carbohydrate, while gluten is composed of proteins. Gluten is found in different amounts in different types of flour. Bakers refer to a flour with a low proportion of gluten as "weak," and one with a high proportion of gluten as "strong.” A weak flour is best for soft cakes, pie crusts and cookies that are airy or crispy. A strong flour is best for pizza dough or other Italian breads, as gluten provides greater elasticity. Wheat flour is an example of a weak flour, while durum wheat is a strong.   Quick chemistry lesson: When you mix flour and water, the starch and protein in the flour absorbs the liquid and begins to swell. This creates a dough that consists of an adhesive (starch) and a flexible building material (gluten). When the dough is heated, these building materials solidify, so the ”glue” dries and can no longer absorb liquid. Now it becomes a loaf of bread.   Types of Flour Wheat flour, also called kernel wheat flour, is the most common type of flour. The wheat grain is finely ground and sieved, so only the core of the wheat grain is used in baking. Wheat flour is the flour that is suitable for most uses, such as soft cakes, cookies and buns. Spelled flour, also called spelt flour, is similar to wheat flour but has a much higher protein content. It is a finely ground and sifted flour of an ancient wheat variety, with saturating properties. This type of flour is the easiest to use, and it can usually be substituted for wheat flour in recipes. Note that the amount may need to be adjusted, because spelled flour can absorb more liquid. Spelled and wheat flour are also available as whole grain varieties. Durum wheat flour is a hard wheat with extra strong protein.  It has a yellowish color and offers a full-bodied taste. Durum is excellent for pasta or as a blending flour for pizza or other Italian bread. Graham flour is a coarse-ground wholemeal flour of wheat, rich in fiber, minerals and iron. Graham flour is best suited for coarser breads. It mixes well with other flours such as wheat flour, resulting in a bread that does not become too compact. Rye flour is a coarse-ground wholemeal flour of rye, rich in fiber, minerals and iron. Rye flour is well suited for scalding before baking. Scalding means pouring boiling hot water over the flour and letting it stand for a few hours. Meanwhile, the flour absorbs extra water, which results in a softer bread. Rye flour should also be mixed with another flour, which as wheat flour, to avoid breads that are too compact.  Rye flour is also available as finely ground. Rye sieve is a mixture of finely ground sifted wheat flour and finely ground rye flour. It consists of a larger amount of wheat and a smaller amount of rye, and it provides softer and tasty bread. Barley flour is a finely ground flour of peeled barley. It is high in fiber and suitable for slightly coarser breads and crispbread. Wholemeal flour. The difference between sifted and wholemeal flour is how much of the grain is used. The whole grain variant uses the whole grain, including seed and peel, while the sifted variety only consists of the core. Whole grain flour contains a larger amount of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Storage Flour should be stored dry and not hotter than room temperature. If the flour has been heated, the fat in the flour turns rancid and has an unpleasant aftertaste. When flour is stored properly, it normally lasts longer than the date stamp.   Weights and Measures Because flour is packed differently, it should be measured by weight instead of volume. If you do not have a scale and use a measuring cup, make sure the flour is fluffy. Pour it into a bowl before scooping it up, and do not knock the flour into the measuring cup to avoid the risk of adding too much flour. Change flour type Different types of flour have different properties, so they cannot always be substituted. Both taste and texture are affected. Wholemeal flour can often be exchanged for the corresponding amount of other wholemeal flour, for example 50 g graham flour for 50 g rye flour. Sifted spelled flour and sifted wheat flour can usually be substituted for each other. Keep in mind, however, that spelled flour has a little more flavor, which may not work for all pastries. The easiest way is to try replacing some of the wheat flour with a flour with richer fiber, and then test the result.

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2021-11-26 | 2 min read

Fermentation

Fermentation makes bread swell, mature and develop taste. A leavening agent is needed for bread to become airy and grow.  Yeast and sourdough are the most common leavening agents for bread baking, and they work in the same way. When flour and liquid are mixed, gluten threads form a network. During fermentation, carbon dioxide forms gas bubbles that are encapsulated by this network of gluten threads. The gas bubbles are what make dough expand and mature. Fermentation can be affected by various factors such as room temperature, temperature of the dough, humidity, ingredients and time. Different types of fermentation The most common type of fermentation takes place at room temperature and involves two steps: lying time and rest time.  The first step occurs when dough is left to rise in the bowl, after kneading, and the second step occurs when the dough rests on a plate or in the pan. Another method is cold fermentation. For this process, use half the amount of yeast or less, use cold dough liquid, and let the dough rise in the fridge for several hours, usually overnight. The dough will normally last in the fridge for up to three days. With a reduced amount of yeast and cold dough liquid, you can also let dough rise at room temperature, either overnight or for about 8-12 hours. This is usually called night fermentation. The biggest difference between these methods – in addition to time and amount of yeast – is that dough that ferments slowly can develop more flavor than a quick-fermented bread. The first fermentation - lying time After dough is kneaded, it should rest in the bowl. The first fermentation usually takes place at room temperature, and the dough should swell and double in size. During lying time, the dough matures, flavors develop and gas bubbles cause the dough to expand. Different amounts of yeast affect the dough's lying time. Generally, 50 g (1/4 cup) of yeast with ½ liters (about 2 cups) of dough liquid requires about half an hour of fermentation. Half as much yeast requires double the fermentation time. Also, a coarser flour requires a longer lying time than a sifted flour. To see if dough is ready to rise, press lightly on it – if the depression comes back quickly, the dough is ready to be baked. Second fermentation - rest time Rest time is when a ready-formed dough is allowed to rise on a plate or in mold. Covering For an even fermentation and to protect the dough from drying out, you should cover it. When dough is fermented in the Assistent bowl, you can cover it with the dough lid. Then the dough will retain its moisture and ferment evenly, and it will be protected from drying out. When baked bread is resting on a plate or in a mold, cover it with plastic wrap or a damp baking cloth. Temperature Bread ferments differently in different temperatures: slowly when it is cold, and faster when it is warm. Dough should generally be fermented at room temperature, which is around 68-77° F. Professional bakers often use leavening cabinets that make it possible to control the humidity and temperature of bread fermentation. As a home baker, you can imitate a leavening cabinet with your oven. Just set the oven to 86° F, place a pan of hot water in the oven with the bread, and close the oven door. However, this will only work if the oven temperature is below 95° F. Yeast time Fermentation time depends on the type of bread, its ingredients, the amount of yeast, temperature and the size of the bread. Small breads such as buns ferment faster than loaves.  A wheat bread normally needs less time to ferment than a rye bread. Over-fermentation If dough is over-fermented, it flows out and becomes flat. If this happens, you can try turning the dough into a loaf pan and baking. Hopefully this will be enough to save the dough and produce an edible bread. Fermentation during baking As bread bakes, it continues to grow. The yeast dies at about 122° F, but the gas bubbles that have formed continue to expand.

Fermentation makes bread swell, mature and develop taste. A leavening agent is needed for bread to become airy and grow.  Yeast and sourdough are the most common leavening agents for bread baking, and they work in the same way. When flour and liquid are mixed, gluten threads form a network. During fermentation, carbon dioxide forms gas bubbles that are encapsulated by this network of gluten threads. The gas bubbles are what make dough expand and mature. Fermentation can be affected by various factors such as room temperature, temperature of the dough, humidity, ingredients and time. Different types of fermentation The most common type of fermentation takes place at room temperature and involves two steps: lying time and rest time.  The first step occurs when dough is left to rise in the bowl, after kneading, and the second step occurs when the dough rests on a plate or in the pan. Another method is cold fermentation. For this process, use half the amount of yeast or less, use cold dough liquid, and let the dough rise in the fridge for several hours, usually overnight. The dough will normally last in the fridge for up to three days. With a reduced amount of yeast and cold dough liquid, you can also let dough rise at room temperature, either overnight or for about 8-12 hours. This is usually called night fermentation. The biggest difference between these methods – in addition to time and amount of yeast – is that dough that ferments slowly can develop more flavor than a quick-fermented bread. The first fermentation - lying time After dough is kneaded, it should rest in the bowl. The first fermentation usually takes place at room temperature, and the dough should swell and double in size. During lying time, the dough matures, flavors develop and gas bubbles cause the dough to expand. Different amounts of yeast affect the dough's lying time. Generally, 50 g (1/4 cup) of yeast with ½ liters (about 2 cups) of dough liquid requires about half an hour of fermentation. Half as much yeast requires double the fermentation time. Also, a coarser flour requires a longer lying time than a sifted flour. To see if dough is ready to rise, press lightly on it – if the depression comes back quickly, the dough is ready to be baked. Second fermentation - rest time Rest time is when a ready-formed dough is allowed to rise on a plate or in mold. Covering For an even fermentation and to protect the dough from drying out, you should cover it. When dough is fermented in the Assistent bowl, you can cover it with the dough lid. Then the dough will retain its moisture and ferment evenly, and it will be protected from drying out. When baked bread is resting on a plate or in a mold, cover it with plastic wrap or a damp baking cloth. Temperature Bread ferments differently in different temperatures: slowly when it is cold, and faster when it is warm. Dough should generally be fermented at room temperature, which is around 68-77° F. Professional bakers often use leavening cabinets that make it possible to control the humidity and temperature of bread fermentation. As a home baker, you can imitate a leavening cabinet with your oven. Just set the oven to 86° F, place a pan of hot water in the oven with the bread, and close the oven door. However, this will only work if the oven temperature is below 95° F. Yeast time Fermentation time depends on the type of bread, its ingredients, the amount of yeast, temperature and the size of the bread. Small breads such as buns ferment faster than loaves.  A wheat bread normally needs less time to ferment than a rye bread. Over-fermentation If dough is over-fermented, it flows out and becomes flat. If this happens, you can try turning the dough into a loaf pan and baking. Hopefully this will be enough to save the dough and produce an edible bread. Fermentation during baking As bread bakes, it continues to grow. The yeast dies at about 122° F, but the gas bubbles that have formed continue to expand.

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2021-02-16 | 1 min read

Ankarsrum Assistent Original – Your friend in the kitchen

Ankarsrum kitchen machine suits both large and small households.

With a kitchen machine from Ankarsrum you get a complete helper and assistent in the kitchen. With over 16 different functions you can, among other things, whisk, knead, grind, squeeze and blend.The kitchen machine is manufactured and assembled by hand in Sweden, and has almost 80-years of history. Since the start in 1940, over 1,500,000 Ankarsrum® Assistent Originals have been sold in 30 different countries. For many, it is important that the product is aesthetically pleasing but still functional. When developing our kitchen machines, we place great emphasis on designing the product. This results in a very popular and timeless model. In addition, we have chosen to use only sustainable and environmentally friendly materials for our products. This results in a quality certified kitchen machine that is suitable for both baking and cooking. Ankarsrum Assistent Original has a wide range of colors to choose from so you can get a kitchen machine in your favorite color. Spice up the kitchen with a vibrant color in red or turquoise or keep it subtle with a black or white kitchen machine.
If you have difficulty knowing what accessories you need, we have a wide variety to choose from here. In addition, there are complete packages to buy. These include everything needed to make the most of your kitchen machine. With a good and durable machine, staying in the kitchen is both efficient and rewarding. Ankarsrum’s kitchen assistent is suitable for a variety of cooking styles. For your own safety, we offer a 7-years warranty on our machine AKM6230. This applies to the engine as it is the most expensive component to replace.

Ankarsrum kitchen machine suits both large and small households.

With a kitchen machine from Ankarsrum you get a complete helper and assistent in the kitchen. With over 16 different functions you can, among other things, whisk, knead, grind, squeeze and blend.The kitchen machine is manufactured and assembled by hand in Sweden, and has almost 80-years of history. Since the start in 1940, over 1,500,000 Ankarsrum® Assistent Originals have been sold in 30 different countries. For many, it is important that the product is aesthetically pleasing but still functional. When developing our kitchen machines, we place great emphasis on designing the product. This results in a very popular and timeless model. In addition, we have chosen to use only sustainable and environmentally friendly materials for our products. This results in a quality certified kitchen machine that is suitable for both baking and cooking. Ankarsrum Assistent Original has a wide range of colors to choose from so you can get a kitchen machine in your favorite color. Spice up the kitchen with a vibrant color in red or turquoise or keep it subtle with a black or white kitchen machine. If you have difficulty knowing what accessories you need, we have a wide variety to choose from here. In addition, there are complete packages to buy. These include everything needed to make the most of your kitchen machine. With a good and durable machine, staying in the kitchen is both efficient and rewarding. Ankarsrum’s kitchen assistent is suitable for a variety of cooking styles. For your own safety, we offer a 7-years warranty on our machine AKM6230. This applies to the engine as it is the most expensive component to replace.

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2020-10-08 | 1 min read

Quick Guide – Double beater set

With the balloon whisks you will always get it right when aiming for the perfectly fluffy cream and meringues, and with the cookie whisks you make both the tastiest cookies and the crispiest pie pastries you can imagine. Let the fun begin: shape it, bake it — and eat it! Ballongvispar Ankarsrum

 

Balloon Whisks - Whisk batter and meringue

  • The beater bowl and balloon whisks correspond to the function of an electric whisk.
  • The beater bowl with the balloon whisks is perfect when you want to make looser and fluffy batter or meringue.
  • Perfect when you, for example, are gonna sponge cake, cake base, meringue, pancake batter, etc.
  • PPerfect when adding ingredients while whisking.
  • Start at low speed and increase gradually. If you have a lot of batter, use the bowl cover to prevent it from splashing.
  • If you do not think everything is mixed well, turn up the speed and then turn down again to the desired speed.
  • The beater bowl can withstand heat and can whisk all types of meringue.

 

 

Cookies whisks Ankarsrum

 

Cookie whisks - Bake cookies and mix frosting / topping

  • The beater bowl together with cookie whisks is perfect when you are going to bake shortbread cakes, make pie dough or mix topping with room temperature butter or cream cheese.
  • If you are going to make a really large batch of shortcrust pastry, you can also use the bowl together with a dough knife and the dough roller.
  • It is important to always use room temperature butter! If a recipe requires refrigerator-cold butter, we recommend using an electric whisks with hooks instead.
  • If you do not think everything is mixed well, turn up the speed and then turn down again to the desired speed.

With the balloon whisks you will always get it right when aiming for the perfectly fluffy cream and meringues, and with the cookie whisks you make both the tastiest cookies and the crispiest pie pastries you can imagine. Let the fun begin: shape it, bake it — and eat it! Ballongvispar Ankarsrum

 

Balloon Whisks - Whisk batter and meringue

  • The beater bowl and balloon whisks correspond to the function of an electric whisk.
  • The beater bowl with the balloon whisks is perfect when you want to make looser and fluffy batter or meringue.
  • Perfect when you, for example, are gonna sponge cake, cake base, meringue, pancake batter, etc.
  • PPerfect when adding ingredients while whisking.
  • Start at low speed and increase gradually. If you have a lot of batter, use the bowl cover to prevent it from splashing.
  • If you do not think everything is mixed well, turn up the speed and then turn down again to the desired speed.
  • The beater bowl can withstand heat and can whisk all types of meringue.

 

 

Cookies whisks Ankarsrum

 

Cookie whisks - Bake cookies and mix frosting / topping

  • The beater bowl together with cookie whisks is perfect when you are going to bake shortbread cakes, make pie dough or mix topping with room temperature butter or cream cheese.
  • If you are going to make a really large batch of shortcrust pastry, you can also use the bowl together with a dough knife and the dough roller.
  • It is important to always use room temperature butter! If a recipe requires refrigerator-cold butter, we recommend using an electric whisks with hooks instead.
  • If you do not think everything is mixed well, turn up the speed and then turn down again to the desired speed.

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2019-02-19 | 1 min read

Flour

Bread Flour

Bread flour is made from high protein, low moisture grains. This type of flour is necessary when making dough with yeast in it. During the kneading process, the protein (gluten) strands are developed making them stretchy and elastic. During the rising process, the gases produced by the yeast become trapped by the stretchy dough and the dough rises with those gases. Bread flour may be used in recipes such as cakes and cookies but you may notice the texture to be denser than you would like. For milling your own grains for whole wheat bread flour, use a “Hard” wheat, as this type of grain will be higher in protein. Ancient grains such as Spelt and Kamut also have enough protein to make a dough with yeast in it.

All Purpose Flour or AP Flour

AP flour is made of wheat flour but it tends to high a more equal amount of protein and moisture. This flour can be used when making dough with yeast in it but the dough may not rise as much as you would like. This flour can also be used in recipes such as cakes or cookies and will give a slightly better result than if you had used bread flour. AP Flour is perfect for muffins or quick breads. For milling your own grains for whole wheat AP flour, “Hard” wheat (for yeast dough) or “Soft” wheat (for quick breads) can be used. Ancient grains such as Spelt and Kamut also make good AP flours due to their slightly higher moisture content.

Pastry Flour

Pastry flour is typically made from high moisture, low protein grains. Due to the lower amount of protein (gluten), this flour is an excellent choice when making cakes, cookies and pastries where a flaky texture is desired. For milling your own grains for whole wheat pastry flour, “Soft” wheat is ideal as well as some grains such as Rye, Barley or Spelt.

Bread Flour

Bread flour is made from high protein, low moisture grains. This type of flour is necessary when making dough with yeast in it. During the kneading process, the protein (gluten) strands are developed making them stretchy and elastic. During the rising process, the gases produced by the yeast become trapped by the stretchy dough and the dough rises with those gases. Bread flour may be used in recipes such as cakes and cookies but you may notice the texture to be denser than you would like. For milling your own grains for whole wheat bread flour, use a “Hard” wheat, as this type of grain will be higher in protein. Ancient grains such as Spelt and Kamut also have enough protein to make a dough with yeast in it.

All Purpose Flour or AP Flour

AP flour is made of wheat flour but it tends to high a more equal amount of protein and moisture. This flour can be used when making dough with yeast in it but the dough may not rise as much as you would like. This flour can also be used in recipes such as cakes or cookies and will give a slightly better result than if you had used bread flour. AP Flour is perfect for muffins or quick breads. For milling your own grains for whole wheat AP flour, “Hard” wheat (for yeast dough) or “Soft” wheat (for quick breads) can be used. Ancient grains such as Spelt and Kamut also make good AP flours due to their slightly higher moisture content.

Pastry Flour

Pastry flour is typically made from high moisture, low protein grains. Due to the lower amount of protein (gluten), this flour is an excellent choice when making cakes, cookies and pastries where a flaky texture is desired. For milling your own grains for whole wheat pastry flour, “Soft” wheat is ideal as well as some grains such as Rye, Barley or Spelt.

Read more